Prof David M Ingram

Professor of CFD



+44(0)131 6519022


Faraday Building

Engineering Discipline: 

  • Mathematics

Research Institute: 

  • Energy Systems
Professor David M Ingram
Professor David M Ingram

Academic Qualifications: 

  • PhD - Computational Fluid Dynamics, Manchester Metropolitan University, 1992.
  • BSc (Hons) Mathematics, Statistics and Computing, University of Greenwich, 1988
  • PGCE (Further, Adult and Higher Education), Manchester Metropolitan University, 1995

Professional Qualifications and Memberships: 

  • Member of the International Association of Hydraulics Research, 1998

Research Interests: 

Computer Simulation of Violent Wave Overtopping

Specifically my work on the development of Numerical Models for the simulation of violent wave overtopping has been funded through several EPSRC and one EU grant. This work has entailed the development of Advanced Numerical Models in close co-operation with both physical modellers and design engineers. A current EPSRC grant (on which I am the Principal Investigator) is attempting to implement the solver on a national High Performance Computing facility in order to allow the simulation of the full 1000 wave duration of realistic storms. In many cases detailed knowledge and understanding of the overtopping processes requires a combination of numerical simulation and physical modelling. As a result much of this work has been done in close collaboration with others especially Bruce [IES, Edinburgh], Muller [Southampton], Allsop [HR-Wallingford], Causon [Manchester Met], Mingham [Manchester Met], Troch [Gent, Belgium] and Watanabe [Hokkaido, Japan].

Cartesian Cut Cell Methods

One of the first tasks to be faced in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the generation of a suitable computational mesh. Although a variety of mesh generation techniques are available, the generation of a suitable mesh for complex, multi-element, geometries is still a complex and tedious task. The two, traditional, approaches are: the use of a structured body-fitted mesh utilising a multi-block structure, in which the blocks may overlap and the use of a completely unstructured body-fitted mesh. Both of these approaches require significant efforts in mesh generation to ensure that the generated mesh is of sufficient quality to both accurately represent the geometry and provide a high quality solution. Even in cases where a detailed description of the geometry is available from a CAD system, mesh generation can still be a complex task, requiring much more time to generate the grid than to simulate the fluid flow. An alternative approach is the use of Cartesian cut cells. This conceptually simple approach "cuts" solid bodies out of a background Cartesian mesh. Although originally developed for potential flow, the method has been successfully applied to the Euler equations in two and three space dimensions, to the shallow water equations (SWE) and extended to deal with low speed incompressible flows and flows involving moving material interfaces. The technique is also particularly suited to problems involving moving solid boundaries whose motion is either driven externally or responding to the local fluid motion.


  • Free surface flow modelling
  • Development of time marching computational fluid dynamics solvers
  • Violent wave interaction with coastal structures
  • Simulation of wave and tidal current renewable energy devices.
  • Shallow water flow modelling
  • The Cartesian cut cell method for boundary fitted mesh generation

Further Information: 

  • Personal web page
  • Member of the Joint Research Institute in Energy, part of the Edinburgh Research Partnership funded by the Scottish Funding Council.
  • Awarded the 1997 Busk Prize by the Council of the Royal Aeronautical Society.